Philippians 4:13 Romans 8:28 John 3:16 Hebrews 11:1 2 Timothy 1:7 1 Peter 5:7 1 John 4:18 John 14:6 Romans 12:2 Romans 5:8 Galatians 6:9 1 Corinthians 13:13 Philippians 4:6 Ephesians 2:8 Matthew 6:33 Galatians 5:22 Matthew 11:28 Ephesians 3:20 John 10:10 Matthew 16:16
The frequency of dense New Testament streaks in the Old Testament, especially in Leviticus and Deuteronomy; I didn’t expect to see them there. The loops in Samuel / Kings / Chronicles and in the Gospels indicating parallel stories.
The sudden increased density of New Testament references in Psalms through Isaiah. The eschatological references in Isaiah and Daniel. The density of references from the Minor Prophets back to both the Major Prophets and earlier in the Old Testament.
The surprising density of cross references in Hebrew-Jude. The asymmetry. If verse A cites verse B, verse B doesn’t necessarily cite verse A. I wonder if I should make the data symmetrical.
“Jesus and New Testament writers amply illustrate their belief in the full and complete inspiration of the Old Testament by quoting from every part of the Scriptures as authoritative, including some of its most disputed teachings. The creation of Adam and Eve (Matt. 19:4–6), the destruction of the world by a flood, the miracle of Jonah and the great fish (Matt. 12:39–40), and many other incidents are quoted authoritatively by Jesus. No part of Sacred Writ claims less than full and complete authority. Biblical inspiration is plenary.” Geisler, Norman L.; Nix, William E. From God To Us Revised and Expanded: How We Got Our Bible. Moody Publishers. ❤️
While reading a litany of cross-references called out in the Geisler and Nix book, it occurred to me that it would be helpful if we could somehow visualize the direct citations, and thereby visualize the case for plenary (or full) inspiration. After all, it’s one thing to read about Adam and Eve in Genesis, and it’s entirely something else for Jesus to refer to Adam and Eve in a non-allegorical context. Or maybe not (it depends on your initial understanding and belief).
According to data available from Crossway Bibles, there are 599 direct citations between verses in the Bible. If you add word-or-phrase, thematic, and less-direct references, there are over 115,000 cross references that have been mapped by Crossway. To graphically illustrate these cross references, we can borrow a genome mapping tool from our Canadian friends working in the field of genetics.
The above illustration is a non-genomic map of all 599 direct citations in the Bible. If you spend a little time studying the map, it highlights and supports some very interesting observations and conclusions.
The connecting bands represent ‘bridges’ where one book cites another. The width of the bands is indicative of the number of citations between the two books. The colors of the bands are meaningless, except to distinguish one connecting band from another.
The INNER ring is color-coded by writer (Paul is orange, Luke is lavender, Psalmists are red, Moses is brown, Peter and Mark are plum, John is blue, the writer of Hebrews is chartreuse, Isaiah is olive). Numbers on the inner ring are the number of verses containing direct citations. For example, Isaiah has over 130 direct citations from other books, and Psalms has over 180.
The OUTER ring represents percentages of connected verses within that book. For example approximately 30 percent of the citations of Psalms appear in Hebrews.
The most influential/influenced Scriptures (the biggest wedges) were Psalms, Isaiah, Romans, Hebrews, Matthew, and Acts—accounting for half of the direct citations in the Bible. Matthew is more grounded in the Old Testament than the other three Gospel writers. (Isn’t it argued that Matthew’s text was written originally in Hebrew?)
Paul in Romans, Acts (some of which is Paul), and the writer of Hebrews have the lion’s share of the New Testament citations. Paul cites 13 different Old Testament books in Romans alone.
Genesis gets surprisingly little attention outside of Romans.
Job, which is arguably older than Genesis, gets even less recognition (in terms of direct citations anyway).
Peter apparently wasn’t very well read, as may also be apparent in Mark with so few Old Testament citations. (Mark was thought to be Peter’s secretary, so the Gospel of Mark is actually Peter’s source material.)
Revelation has almost no direct citations. It cannot be surprising that no other books cite Revelation (Revelation was the last book written), but is interesting that the content of Revelation is full of direct dictation from Jesus and John’s apocalyptic vision(s). In a graphical sense this reminds us that very few first-century Christians would have had their understanding of heaven based upon Revelation, and that Revelation is truly unique—and a gift to later disciples.
The Gospels are generally lacking in citations of each other—could this be an indication of their contemporary authorship (i.e. that they were written at about the same time). What else do you see in the data? Please comment below.
Ultimately, what we best might take away from this map is an appreciation for how tightly all of the Scriptures fit together, thereby supporting the case for the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures—in graphical form no less.
A clear example of this comes at the end of Luke's gospel. After Jesus was crucified, his followers were crushed. They had hoped that he would be the Messiah who would destroy the tyranny of Rome and restore the kingdom of Israel. But their idea of the Messiah was not God’s idea. To his disappointed followers, Jesus said:
“‘How foolish you are, and how slow to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Messiah have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.” (Luke 24:25-27 NIV)
For Jesus, the idea that he had to first die as an atonement for our sins, and then rise from the dead, made perfect sense—and was, in fact, necessary—as the fulfillment of what the prophets of the Hebrew Bible had said. This was how he understood himself, and he argued that this was the only way his followers could understand him.
But what does it mean to fulfill the Scriptures? This is not as simple as it may sound. Often, the New Testament writers say that Jesus has fulfilled the Scriptures when something in his life is literally predicted by the prophets. For instance, the idea that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. Other times, fulfillment is not about prediction but pattern. In his role as Israel's Messiah, Jesus fulfills the Scriptures when he relives Israel's story through his own life—when he suffers their pains, endures their hardships, and lives a life of perfect obedience to God's law.
So, we invite you to explore these passages below from the Jewish Scriptures and their fulfillments in the life of Jesus.
The Prophecies 1) The Messiah would be resurrected
Hebrew Scriptures reference: Psalm 16:8-11
New Testament citations: Acts 13:35-37
Commentary: King David may have seen ahead to his own resurrection—but David’s resurrection was only possible because of the resurrection of his descendant, the Messiah. His vision of his own resurrection and that of the Messiah’s could well have blended into one glimpse of the future.
In rabbinic tradition, there was discussion as to whether David was speaking of immortality in Psalm 16.1 The psalm expresses King David’s hope, but what was he hoping for? Was it for a long and full life in the present – or was it for immortality and to be in God’s presence forever? David affirms that God will not “abandon my soul to Sheol,” implying that God would not leave him to the grave. And his affirmation that God would “not let your holy one see corruption” (“corruption” is literally, “the Pit”) implies that he believed he would not undergo the physical decay that death involves.
A popular Jewish song goes like this: “David, Melech Yisrael, chai, chai, v’kayam,” “David, King of Israel, lives forever” (or “lives and endures”). An online poster (using an alternative spelling for David) posed this question to a Jewish discussion group: “I’m pretty sure David, the king of Israel is dead and buried. If so, what does this song really mean and why do we sing it?” One answer given was: “Perhaps since the messiah is to be from the lineage of King David and has yet to come it is a reference of things to come via King David’s line and a continuation?”
✨In the New Testament book of ACTS, chapter two, PETER uses a similar thought in addressing Jewish people on the holiday of SHAVOUT, the day on which, according to *tradition, King David was both BORN and also DIED. No wonder he takes the occasion to quote Psalm 16 and then mentions that “David is dead and his tomb is available for INSPECTION!” ✨But, he continues,
“Being therefore a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an OATH to him that he would set one of his descendants on his throne, he FORESAW and SPOKE about the resurrection of the [Messiah], that he was not *abandoned* to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are WITNESSES.”
– ACTS 2:30-32
King David may have seen ahead to his own resurrection – but David’s resurrection was only possible because of the resurrection of his descendant, the Messiah. His VISION of his own resurrection and that of the Messiah’s could well have blended into one glimpse of the future.
In Acts chapter 13, Paul argues similarly. David did see (that is, EXPERIENCE) that corruption of death, because, after all, he died. But it was in his own descendant, the Messiah Jesus, that corruption was “Not seen.” As Paul taught elsewhere, because of Jesus’ resurrection, the resurrection of all other believers is possible.
David looked ahead to a life with God beyond the grave, even if he did not have full CLARITY of what that entailed. Because Jesus’ resurrection enables the resurrection of all believers, including David, that vision of his own resurrection merged with the resurrection of Jesus. (Reference: Psalm 16:8-11 Fulfillment: Acts 2:22-32; 13:35-37)
How Can I Identify Messianic Prophecies in the Old Testament?
There are prophetic types and shadows all throughout the Old Testament pointing to Jesus Christ. From the tabernacle and the feasts to the offerings and the High Priest, we can identify the Messiah who was, and is and is to come.
There are more than 300 Old Testament prophecies fulfilled by Jesus Christ, *revealing* the TRUE Messiah who would come to ATONE for sin and to REDEEM BOTH *Jew and *Gentile unto Himself.
In order for Christians to identify Messianic prophecies and prophetic types and shadows within the Old Testament, it is important to be a student of THE WORD of God and to understand that the New Testament is needed to UNDERSTAND the Old Testament and vice versa.
Both the Old Testament and the New Testament testify of Jesus Christ. The Old Testament predicts the One to come. The New Testament reveals the One who has come and will come again.
You may be familiar with the account in Luke 24 where Cleopas and another disciple are walking along the road to Emmaus following the *death, *burial, and *resurrection of Jesus Christ.
As they walked along, Jesus DREW NEAR and began ASKING them QUESTIONS about THEIR CONVERSATION.
Unable to *recognize *Jesus, they told of what had happened and of their languishing hope that He was the one to redeem Israel.
Jesus 👏🏻rebuked👏🏻 them saying, “How foolish you are, and how -slow to believe- all that the prophets have SPOKEN! Did not the Messiah have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?” (Luke 24:25,26).
He then went on to INTERPRET to them in all the scriptures the things concerning Himself, beginning with *Moses and all the Prophets* (Luke 24:27).
These passages along with countless others in the New Testament are *interwoven* with Old Testament prophecies and types, clearly IDENTIFYING Jesus Christ as the Messiah who was FORETOLD hundreds of “years before” His birth.
According to Walter Kaiser, “There is no finer TEACHER🍎 on whether Jesus is to be found in the Old Testament than the teaching of our LORD Jesus HIMSELF.”
Along with Luke 24, we find Jesus saying to the crowd in the Sermon on the Mount, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the LAW or the PROPHETS; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them” (✨Matthew 5:17✨).
He also 👏🏻REBUKED👏🏻 the Jewish people in John 5:39 saying, “You study the Scriptures diligently because you THINK that in them you have eternal life. These are the very Scriptures that TESTIFY about ME.” Something worth noting here is that the scriptures Jesus referenced were from the Old Testament.
🌳🌈The Partnership of the Testaments🌈🌳
Identifying Messianic prophecies in the Old Testament requires “reading and understanding the New Testament.”
For instance, by *studying and *understanding the earthly life and ministry of Jesus Christ, we can *recognize the scriptures that *foretold of Him in the Old Testament and fulfilled in the New Testament. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament ✨PARTNER TOGETHER✨ to Jesus Christ. 🌈
Details surrounding the life and ministry of Christ Jesus and Old Testament prophecy become evident when reading the New Testament. Matthew 1:22-23 quotes the prophet Isaiah concerning the virgin birth of Christ (Isaiah 7:14).
Jeremiah 31:22 foretells of Him being conceived by the Holy Spirit, and this is fulfilled in Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:35. The place of Christ’s birth as Bethlehem is noted in two of the gospels with it first prophesied in Micah 5:1-5.
Details surrounding His ministry, such as the BLIND SEEING🙈and the DEAF HEARING🙉 (MATTHEW 11:5) were prophesied by the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 29:18,19; Isaiah 35:5).
Psalm 78:2 says, “I will open my mouth with a parable; I will UTTER HIDDEN, things from “of old.” We know from the New Testament that Jesus spoke many times in PARABLES (Matthew 13:34-35:34). 🌳🍎
The Old Testament speaks of JUDAS who would FULFILL prophecy in betraying Christ for 30 pieces of silver (Psalm 41:9; Zechariah 11:12,13).
Several of the Psalms mention the piercing of a righteous SUFFERERS hands and feet (Psalm 22:16), soldiers casting lots for this same individual’s coat (Psalm 22:18), this One having no bones broken (Psalm 34:20), and His resurrection (Psalm 49:15).
✨Even the CRY of Jesus Christ from the CROSS, “My God, My God, why have you FORSAKEN me?” would have brought this Psalm to the crowd’s REMEMBERABCE, recognizing its SOURCE from the Old Testament. Jesus Christ was THE ONE in Psalm 22.✨
-From Genesis to Malachi-
In the “very BEGINNING” of the Old Testament, we find the “FIRST prophecy recorded” in the “GARDEN after the FALL,” 🌳🍎which would tell of the “Seed from a woman” who would crush the head of the serpent (Genesis 3:15).
All throughout the Old Testament, Messianic prophecies can be found *pointing* to Jesus Christ. According to Walter Kaiser, there are at least six direct Messianic predictions in the Pentateuch: Genesis 3:15; 9:27; 12:2-3; 49:8-12, Numbers 24:15-19, and Deuteronomy 18:15-18.
The One to come would defeat Satan, DWELL with HIS PEOPLE, and BLESS the nations of the earth through Abraham’s seed, which would come through JUDAH. He would be a STAR to come out of JACOB and a scepter to RISE out of Israel, and He would be a PROPHET.
The scriptures TELL US that the throne of David would be established forever, and this is prophesied in 2 Samuel 7:12,13, 1 Chronicles 17:11-14, and 2 Chronicles 21:7.
The promised REDEEMER is mentioned in JOB 19:25-27. A “priest like Melchizedek” is noted in Psalm 110:1-7. Proverbs 30:4 DECLARES the Son of God.
The *prophets* of the Old Testament foretold of the Messiah, Jesus Christ. Isaiah PROCLAIMED more prophecies concerning Christ than anyone, particularly the well-known verses in Isaiah 53.
A description of the New COVENANT brought forth by Christ is described in Jeremiah 31:31-34. Ezekiel 34:23 says, “I will place over them one SHEPARD, my SERVANT DAVID, and he will “tend to” them; he will tend to them and be their shepherd.” 🐏👏🏻
This is referring to the MESSIAH, the 👏🏻GOOD SHEPARD.👏🏻 Daniel SPEAKS of His everlasting Kingdom (Daniel 7:13,14). 🐏👏🏻
As we continue on with the minor *prophets, we see Messianic *prophecies of Israel’s RESTORATION (Hosea 3:5), the PROMISE of the Holy SPIRIT (Joel 2:28-32), the establishment of the KINGDOM (Micah 4:1-8), the LAMB on the throne (Zechariah 2:10-13), a heavenly High Priest (Zechariah 6:12,13), and the “light of the world” (Malachi 4:2,3). ☀️
These are but a fraction of the Old Testament prophecies proclaiming the Messiah, Jesus Christ, and these prophecies are fulfilled through Jesus Christ and found within the gospels, Romans, Acts, the Epistles, and Revelation.
The early church held the RESPONSIBILITY of showing how the Old Testament prophecies *pointed to Jesus and that He came into the world as the Son of DAVID, “a title closely linked with the MESSIAH as a royal person.”
The early church would rely on the Old Testament to minister the GOSPEL of Jesus Christ and to TESTIFY of Him.
What Does This Mean?
There are PROPHETIC TYPES and shadows all throughout the Old Testament *pointing to Jesus Christ. From the “tabernacle and the feasts” to the offerings and the High Priest, we can IDENTIFY the Messiah who was, and is and is TO COME.
The importance of staying in the WORD of God, understanding the New Testament and its *harmony with the Old Testament, -cannot- be overemphasized.
To understand one is to understand the other, and they both TESTIFY of Jesus Christ, the Messiah.
*HEROISM AND HOPE*
“I like the fact that Israel emphasises the heroism that often gets forgotten in tales of the Holocaust. The end of the official ceremony also involves the singing of Israel’s national anthem, “Ha Tikva”, which means “The HOPE”. The people of Israel were brutally decimated, but not destroyed. They continue to live, to grow, and be a blessing to the world in many different ways – Israel is constantly offering new technology, agricultural developments, and medical breakthroughs that bless to the nations. As we are coming up to Israel’s Independence Day in a couple of weeks, another big reason for the difference in timing becomes apparent. The country of Israel was reborn out of the ashes of the Holocaust, and it is good to be aware of the connection. And since God has restored his people to their land like dry bones coming back to life, the number of Jewish people who have also received the breath of God, his Spirit, continues to grow. There is HOPE. God is faithful to his people Israel.” ❤️☀️❤️☺️
Quantum Mechanics, and the nature of the divine energy source is explained well by jordan Peterson and the nature of entanglement, ressurection, coexistence, the living embodiment of the spirit and its relationship to objects, language and text; (Theres no way this doesnt sound crazy without embodiment of holy spirit):
Quantum mechanics is the set of principle that explains the -behavior of matter- at atomic (or subatomic) scale. The word ‘quantum’ itself describes a “fundamental concept” of quantum mechanics – the quantized or discrete -nature- of “matter and energy.”
Quantum mechanics was “born” when Max Plank introduced the concept of quantized energy (E =nhf) to explain the blackbody thermal radiation. Then, Einstein came up with the concept of ‘photon’ to explain the particle “nature of LIGHT. It led to a theory known as ‘wave-particle duality’, which describes the POSSESSION of -both ‘wave’ and ‘particle’ qualities by -matter and -energy. Louis de Broglie introduced this concept.
Fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics also include Bohr models to describe atomic structure by Niels Bohr, Schrödinger equation (widely used equation to calculate quantum waves) by Erwin Schrödinger, uncertainty principle (which explains the probabilistic nature of matter and energy) by Werner Heisenberg, and Pauli Exclusion Principle by Wolfgang Pauli. The explanation known as Copenhagen interpretation and the *phenomenon* known as quantum *entanglement* also belong-to the quantum mechanics.
CREATING environments through the vehicle of Visual and Expressive ARTS to help plug people into their CREATOR by fostering Spiritual Growth. By combining Therapeutic Art, Christ-Centered CBT techniques, and Integrated Arts in Scriptural Education, I seek to Heal human brokenness and Redeem Fullness through the Transformative Healing Power of The Holy Spirit.